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Cale or Cailleah was the name of a Celtic deity and also the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day Vila Nova de Gaia), which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale).Modern archeology and research shows a Portuguese root to the Celts in Portugal and elsewhere.Chief among these tribes were the Lusitanians, with the core area of these people lying in inland central Portugal, other related tribes existed such as the Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, and the Cynetes or Conii of the Algarve.

A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements (such as Tavira) were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians.Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War.Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories.Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.At 1.7 million km Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest European nation-states, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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